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Company: Thermo Fisher Scientific
Catalog#: 15070
Other protocol()

Generation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-derived DCs
[Abstract]  Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells, which play a critical role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. They act as a bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. An approach to study their function and potentiality is to generate DC-like cells by culturing CD14+ monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4, these cultures give rise to large numbers of DC-like cells. Generating human-DC from PBMC is a useful tool to study biological functions of human DC. [摘要]  树突状细胞(DC)是抗原呈递细胞,其在适应性免疫应答的调节中起关键作用。 它们作为先天免疫系统和适应性免疫系统之间的桥梁。 研究它们的功能和潜力的方法是通过培养富集CD14 +单核细胞的外周血单核细胞(PBMC)产生DC样细胞。 在GM-CSF和IL-4存在下,这些培养物产生大量的DC样细胞。 从PBMC产生人类DC是研究人类DC的生物学功能的有用工具。

Retinal Explant Culture
[Abstract]  A particularly powerful culture method for the retina is the explant assay, which consists in culturing a small piece of retina on an organotypic filter. Retinal explants can be prepared any time between embryonic day 13 (E13) and postnatal day 4 (P4). Although retinal ganglion cells tend to degenerate shortly after they are generated in explants, and photoreceptor cells do not grow extended outer segments, the explants will develop very similarly to a retina in vivo and generate all the different retinal cell types that will migrate to the appropriate layer. The retinal explant culture assay is particularly useful in cases where a mouse mutant is embryonic lethal and its retinal development cannot be studied in vivo. Because retinal explants can be prepared from ... [摘要]  视网膜的特别强大的培养方法是外植体测定,其包括在器官型过滤器上培养小片视网膜。视网膜外植体可以在胚胎第13天(E13)和出生后第4天(P4)之间的任何时间进行。虽然视网膜神经节细胞在外植体中产生后不久就会退化,并且感光细胞不会扩展外延伸的外切片,外植体将在体内与视网膜非常相似,并产生将迁移到适当的所有不同的视网膜细胞类型层。视网膜外植体培养测定在小鼠突变体是胚胎致死性并且其视网膜发育不能在体内研究的情况下特别有用。因为视网膜外植体可以从胚胎动物制备并用病毒载体电穿孔或感染,因此也是胚胎期基因功能研究的有用途径。在这里,我们提出了我们在各种出版物中广泛使用的视网膜外植体培养方法(Kechad等,2012; Cayouette等,2003; Cayouette和Raff,2003; Elliott等,2008)。

ATP and Lactate Quantification
[Abstract]  Cells use glucose to generate energy by two different metabolic processes: lactic fermentation and aerobic respiration. In the first common series of reactions, glucose is converted into pyruvate. In anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is transformed into lactate, this process yields to 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is imported into mitochondria where it is used in the Krebs (or TCA) cycle and oxydative phosphorylation. The global process of oxydative phosphorylation yields to 32 ATP per glucose molecule. For reasons not fully understood, in some pathological cases like cancer, cells use anaerobic glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, in which case the process is called aerobic glycolysis (or Warburg effect). This results in an increased uptake ... [摘要]  细胞使用葡萄糖通过两种不同的代谢过程产生能量:乳酸发酵和有氧呼吸。 在第一个常见的反应系列中,葡萄糖被转化为丙酮酸。 在厌氧条件下,丙酮酸转化为乳酸盐,该过程每个葡萄糖分子产生2个ATP分子。 在氧的存在下,丙酮酸进入线粒体,其用于Krebs(或TCA)循环和氧化磷酸化。 氧化磷酸化的全局过程产生每个葡萄糖分子32个ATP。 由于未完全理解的原因,在一些病理病例如癌症中,细胞即使在氧存在下也使用无氧糖酵解,在这种情况下,该过程称为有氧糖酵解(或沃伯格效应)。 这导致葡萄糖和乳酸盐产生的摄取增加。 细胞内ATP含量和乳酸盐浓度的测量可以提供有氧糖酵解的读出。