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Isoamyl acetate


Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: W205508
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Representation-mediated Aversion as a Model to Study Psychotic-like States in Mice
[Abstract]  Several paradigms for rodent models of the cognitive and negative endophenotypes found in schizophrenic patients have been proposed. However, significant efforts are needed in order to study the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-related positive symptoms. Recently, it has been shown that these positive symptoms can be studied in rats by using representation-mediated learning. This learning measure the accuracy of mental representations of reality, also called ‘reality testing’. Alterations in ‘reality testing’ performance can be an indication of an impairment in perception which is a clear hallmark of positive psychotic-like states. Thus, we describe here a mouse task adapted from previous findings based on a sensory preconditioning task. With this task, associations made between different ... [摘要]  已经提出了在精神分裂症患者中发现的认知和负面内型的啮齿动物模型的几个范例。然而,为了研究精神分裂症相关阳性症状的病理生理学,需要作出重大努力。最近已经表明,通过使用代表介导的学习,可以在大鼠中研究这些阳性症状。这种学习测量了现实心理表征的准确性,也称为“现实测试”。 “现实测试”表现的改变可以表明感知障碍,这是积极的精神病样状态的明显标志。因此,我们在这里介绍一种基于感官预处理任务的以前发现的改编的鼠标任务。通过这项任务,在不同的中性刺激(例如气味和味道)之间进行的协会以及随后的这些刺激之一的选择性贬值使我们能够研究精神感觉表征。因此,这个任务的兴趣在于,它可以用于模拟小鼠中的阳性类似精神状态,如最近所描述的。
【背景】阳性症状(如妄想或幻觉)的存在是精神病样状态的关键特征(美国精神病学协会,2000年和2013年; Tandon,2013年),并且是啮齿动物模型的重大挑战(Wong and Van Tol,2003 ; van den Buuse等人,2005; Mouri等人,2007; Jones等人,2011)。实际上,由于缺乏合适的动物模型(Jones et al。,2011; ...

A Novel Task for Studying Memory of Occasional Events in Rats
[Abstract]  Episodic memory has been defined in humans as the conscious recollection of unique personal past experiences often occurring singly during daily life, including remembrance of what happened, where and when it happened (Tulving, 1972). Here, we propose and describe in details a novel protocol we recently used to test the ability of rats to form and recollect episodic-like memory of previously encountered occasional episodes (Veyrac et al., 2015). During these episodes, the animals are briefly exposed to sets of specific odor–drink associations (what happened) encountered in specific locations (where it happened) within different multisensory enriched environments (in which context/occasion it happened). Memory of the episodes can be tested at relatively short (24 h) or much longer ... [摘要]  在人类中已经定义了特殊记忆,因为对日常生活中经常发生的独特个人过去经历的自觉记忆,包括记忆发生的事情,发生的时间和地点(Tulving,1972)。在这里,我们提出并详细描述了一种我们最近用来测试大鼠形成和记忆以前遇到的偶发事件的情景样记忆的能力的新方案(Veyrac等,2015)。在这些情节中,动物短暂地暴露于不同的多感官富集环境(在其中发生的情况/场合)中遇到的特定气味饮料组合(发生了什么事)。可以在低或高干扰检索情况下相对较短(24小时)或更长时间(24天)延迟测试剧集的记忆。这种新颖的范例为召回性能的个人记忆特征提供了可能与脑功能网络的不同方面相关的证据。更一般来说,它提供了新的可能性来探索细胞和网络机制,这些机制是脑病变过去事件和记忆功能障碍的记忆。

Olfactory Habituation in Fasted Mice
[Abstract]  Sensory perception is tightly modulated by the individual’s internal states. In particular, it has been shown that olfactory processes are constantly influenced by metabolic signals reflecting the energy status of the body. Thus, it is important to implement novel approaches to evaluate the impact of body energy changes on olfactory performance. Here, we describe a behavioral protocol to accurately evaluate olfactory habituation in fasted mice (Soria-Gomez et al., 2014) using basic equipment that mice are familiar with. Briefly, the mouse is placed in a test cage where it is presented first, an odorless solvent (the control), then an odor A (twice) and finally an odor B. This test relies on the fact that animals present an attenuation of the behavioral response after several ... [摘要]  感觉知觉受到个体内部状态的严格调控。 特别地,已经显示嗅觉过程不断地受到反映身体的能量状态的代谢信号的影响。 因此,重要的是实施新的方法来评估身体能量变化对嗅觉性能的影响。 在这里,我们描述了一个行为协议,以准确地评估嗅觉习惯的禁食小鼠(索里亚 - 戈麦斯等人,2014)使用老鼠熟悉的基本设备。 简言之,将小鼠置于测试笼中,其中首先呈现无臭溶剂(对照),然后是气味A(两次),最后是气味B.该测试依赖于动物存在 在相同嗅觉刺激的几次展示后的行为反应。