{{'Search' | translate}}

Sodium chloride


Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: S3014
Other protocol()

In vitro AMPylation Assays Using Purified, Recombinant Proteins
[Abstract]  Post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) orchestrate the activity of individual proteins and ensure their proper function. While modifications such as phosphorylation or glycosylation are well understood, more unusual modifications, including nitrosylation or AMPylation remain comparatively poorly characterized. Research on protein AMPylation–which refers to the covalent addition of an AMP moiety to the side chains of serine, threonine or tyrosine–has undergone a renaissance (Yarbrough et al., 2009; Engel et al., 2012; Ham et al., 2014; Woolery et al., 2014; Preissler et al., 2015; Sanyal et al., 2015; Truttmann et al., 2016; Truttmann et al., 2017). The identification and characterization of filamentation ... [摘要]  翻译后蛋白质修饰(PTM)协调各种蛋白质的活性并确保其功能正常。虽然诸如磷酸化或糖基化的修饰被很好地理解,但是更不寻常的修饰,包括亚硝基化或AMP化仍然比较差的表征。关于蛋白质AMP化的研究 - 其是将AMP部分共价加成到丝氨酸,苏氨酸或酪氨酸的侧链,已经经历了复兴(Yarbrough et al。,2009; Engel et al。 2012年; Ham等人,2014年; Woolery等人,2014年; Preissler等人,2015年; ; Sanyal等人,2015; Truttmann等人,2016; Truttmann等人,2017)。鉴定和表征含丝状(fic)结构域的AMPylases引起了对该PTM的新兴趣(Kinch等人,2009; Yarbrough等人,2009)。基于最近的体内和体外研究,我们现在知道分泌的细菌AMPylase共价连接AMP到Rho家族GTP酶的成员,而后生动物AMPylases修饰HSP70家族蛋白在细胞质和内质网(ER)(Itzen等人,2011; Hedberg和Itzen,2015; Truttmann和Ploegh,2017)。认为AMP化学将HSP70置于不能参与蛋白质重折叠反应的引发剂但瞬时失活的状态(Preissler等人,2015)。 ...

Spinal Cord Preparation from Adult Red-eared Turtles for Electrophysiological Recordings during Motor Activity
[Abstract]  Although it is known that the generation of movements is performed to a large extent in neuronal circuits located in the spinal cord, the involved mechanisms are still unclear. The turtle as a model system for investigating spinal motor activity has advantages, which far exceeds those of model systems using other animals. The high resistance to anoxia allows for investigation of the fully developed and adult spinal circuitry, as opposed to mammals, which are sensitive to anoxia and where using neonates are often required to remedy the problems. The turtle is mechanically stable and natural sensory inputs can induce multiple complex motor behaviors, without the need for application of neurochemicals. Here, we provide a detailed protocol of how to make the adult turtle preparation, also ... [摘要]  虽然已知在位于脊髓的神经元回路中很大程度地进行运动的产生,但是所涉及的机制仍不清楚。乌龟作为调查脊柱运动活动的示范系统具有优势,远远超过使用其他动物的模型系统。对缺氧的高抗性允许对完全发育和成年脊髓电路进行调查,而不是对缺氧敏感的哺乳动物,并且通常需要使用新生儿来补救问题。乌龟是机械稳定的,天然感觉输入可以诱导多种复杂的运动行为,而不需要神经化学物质的应用。在这里,我们提供了如何使成年龟准备的详细方案,也称为电生理调查的综合准备。在这里,通过机械感觉激活,通过细胞内,细胞外和电图记录来记录单细胞和网络活性,可以诱导后肢刮擦反射。该准备工作是由Petersen等人(2014)和Petersen和Berg(2016)以及其他正在进行的研究开发的。
【背景】脊髓电生理学的研究传统上与机械并发症有关,因为许多运动部件和脊柱的灵活性。为了规避这个问题,脊髓经常从柱中解剖出来并移动到可以进行稳定的电生理记录的室。然而,该过程具有缺点,例如,如果要研究多个电动机行为,则适当激活电动机电路是复杂的。此外,缺乏供血和缺乏氧气对电路的健康和完整性有严重影响。一个可以规避所有这些问题的实验模型是龟制剂(Keifer and ...

Flow Cytometric Analysis of HIV-1 Transcriptional Activity in Response to shRNA Knockdown in A2 and A72 J-Lat Cell Lines
[Abstract]  The main obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients is post-integration latency (Finzi et al., 1999). Antiretroviral treatments target only actively replicating virus, while latent infections that have low or no transcriptional activity remain untreated (Sedaghat et al., 2007). To eliminate viral reservoirs, one strategy focuses on reversing HIV-1 latency via ‘shock and kill’ (Deeks, 2012). The basis of this strategy is to overcome the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 latency by therapeutically inducing viral gene and protein expression under antiretroviral therapy and to cause selective cell death via the lytic properties of the virus, or the immune system now recognizing the infected cells. Recently, a number of studies have described the therapeutic potential of ... [摘要]  消除HIV-1患者的主要障碍是后整合延迟(Finzi等人,1999)。抗逆转录病毒治疗仅针对主动复制病毒,而具有低转录活性或无转录活性的潜伏感染仍未得到治疗(Sedaghat等人,2007)。为了消除病毒性水库,一项战略重点是通过“休克和杀死”来逆转HIV-1潜伏期(Deeks,2012)。该策略的基础是通过在抗逆转录病毒治疗下通过治疗性诱导病毒基因和蛋白质表达来克服HIV-1潜伏期的分子机制,并通过病毒的溶解性质或现在识别感染细胞的免疫系统引起选择性细胞死亡。最近,许多研究已经描述了药物抑制人类溴结构域蛋白质的溴结构域和末端(BET)家族的成员的治疗潜力(Filippakopoulos等人,2010; Dawson等人& / em>,2011; Delmore等人,2011),其包括BRD2,BRB3,BRD4和BRDT。小分子BET抑制剂,例如JQ1(Filippakopoulos et al。,2010; Delmore等人,2011),I-BET(Nicodeme等人< / ...